Transfusions of red blood cells are among the most common medical procedures in the world. Globally, approximately 85 million units of blood are used in blood transfusions every year.

Blood transfusions are given to patients to treat blood loss as a result of serious injuries, surgeries, or childbirth. In addition, red blood cell transfusions are used for illnesses that cause bleeding (e.g., a bleeding ulcer); inherited or acquired hemolytic anemia; anemia as a result of kidney disease or cancer; liver disease; and sickle cell disease.


Currently, there is no viable substitute for red blood cells. All red blood cells are supplied by human donors. Donor-derived red blood cells have a number of limitations: There are safety concerns. In addition, red blood cells must be stored within a specific temperature range immediately after the plasma is separated but can only be stored for a short period of time to ensure patient safety. Finally, because red blood cells are dependent on human donors, blood shortages happen frequently, and a complex supply chain must be maintained.


Our cell therapy program is focused on developing human red blood cells (erythrocytes), as well as platelets (thrombocytes), from human (non-embryo) iPSCs and producing them at scale in a highly cost-effective matter in order to overcome these limitations of donor-derived packed red blood cells and platelets.

Current Developments

We are developing human red blood cells (erythrocytes) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using our proprietary HD-DOE™ research and development platform.

We are also pursuing the development of human platelets (thrombocytes) for therapeutic uses.

We are also developing an automated production to scale the production of these cells.

Explore Our Other Cell Therapy Programs


Bone Marrow Failure

Huntington's Disease

Parkinson's Disease